So let's think about parasites for a minute.
At any one time a creature (including many humans - ick I know) will have all stages of a parasite or parasite types from eggs to juveniles to adults within their system over an average of a 21 day life cycle. The most common ones get into systems by ingestion. Whether that is eating contaminated food in a feeder, off the ground or in the pasture or drinking contaminated water. Eggs, larvae, flea bites, slug ingestion, inhaling airborne worm ovum and even skin contact with some such as hookworm. Some of these live off of the food in the GI Tract, some of them attach to the host and live off of the nutrients in the blood stream or even the blood itself.
Now thinking like a Vitalist (cause oriented) rather than an allopath (symptom oriented) let's think about using an extract for GI System residing parasites. Yes it can be effective. In those cases you will want to fast the animal so that the extract comes into physical contact with more of the parasites in the intestines as it moves through them. It will of course also be absorbed into the blood stream and run through cells and for those parasites drinking blood they will be getting it in their lunch. Now if you are working with a ruminant keep in mind that very little of the product will make it into the intestines, but it will still make it into the bloodstream. So in my opinion as a Master of Herbology extracts are best used for simple stomached creatures as well as for parasites that reside in other areas of the body. For many people extracts are easier to give as they can be added to waters or carefully given by dropper by mouth in the case of smaller pets.
Now consider using an herb powder. Herb powders, on the average, in a reasonably healthy stomached individual will start absorbing phytochemicals (plant nutritional components) into the bloodstream in about twenty minutes. In ruminating animals more of that product is then put into the cud, chewed further and then a much larger percentage makes it into the intestinal tract. You also have a larger amount of plant mass entering the rumen and / or intestinal tracts then you do with an extract, so that more herb is coming in direct contact with worm ovum and parasite bodies. So for GI residing parasites in animals and especially those still eating (not fasting which is dangerous for milking stock and third trimester stock) my personal preference is to use high quality whole herb powder products that are synergestically blended.
We offer two: DWA(tm) and GI Soother(tm). Both products can be responsibly used with any age and type of animal with no milk, meat, egg or pregnancy withdrawals.
GI Soother(tm) is incredibly popular with raising youngstock and especially for foreign living matter that can hemorrhage a creature quickly.
DWA(tm) is useful for foreign living matter issues occuring in multiple body locations.
Both products support the body's attempt to do what it was created to do in these situations.
For animals that are really struggling we also encourage the use of MMune(tm) to give the body additional immune system support.
For animals that are or have been really struggling we also like to consider BetterDaze(tm) for additional wellness support with its very mindful collection of herbs historically used for a wide range of phytochemical components.
Here's to a very happy and healthy season for you and all of the creatures under your loving care!
Look for other articles in our blog on parasites and on giving herbs.
All of you in the cold snap areas please remember to bundle yourselves well and stay safe. You will need extra calories to stay warm. Protect your skin! Please make sure your animals (even pigs) have extra grass hay accessible to help them create warmth and deep bedding.
Be sure they are in areas where the wind and weather can stay off of them and not blow in from the sides. Some overhead fresh air movement is good- I like mine at the eight foot level so it's not near me when standing or my stock.
Fragile, old, or very young animals may need to be in a heated area such as a milkroom, tackroom area, enclosed heatable stall or even a back porch or extra bathroom (40 degrees for a room is plenty warm as long as they have good food and bedding). Be extremely wary of heat lamps which are responsible for many barn fires. They can shatter if they fall, if an animal bumps into one, or if an animal shakes their head and spashes water droplets on it.
Offer warm water to drink if possible with black strap molasses (not feed store, but health food store) in it for more b vitamins. You can also put a large pinch of cayenne herb powder per large goat, a small pinch per small goat in their water to help them with endurance, more b's and help warm their core more and support their heart. Fragile animals can be carefully drenched with their cayenne if you mix it with one or two ounces of water.
BIG HUGS From All of us at Fir Meadow LLC
Yes you can store herbs for long term! Our products (www.firmeadowllc.com) are Best by generally two years from date of manufacture although we have had customers use products up to seven year old with favorable results (not recommended!).
The enemies to your herb blends are heat, greatly fluctuating temperatures, light, age and moisture so those are the situations we want to avoid for them. For herbs to be used within the next month or two often keeping them in their packaging and in a cupboard is sufficient. Herbs and blends that you will be keeping for longer than two months I suggest that one pull out a couple of months worth and keep that in the barn in a sealed freezer bag, lidded canning jar (be careful around concrete!), or a sealable plastic jar remembering to store it out of direct light. Also be sure to use a clean spoon or scoop and do not get any moisture into either container. The remainder can be kept in the original packaging in the house in a cabinet.
For those that want to store herbs beyond a year or two or for seasonally used products (like Ewe-Ter-N) I suggest you double bag the product you don't plan to be using that year and place it in the freezer. Most herbs as long as you didn't introduce moisture to them will keep for years in that manner.
If one is making an infusion (strong herbal tea) any excess can be kept for up to three days in the refrigerator. Excess can be frozen in ice cube trays and double freezer bagged for later use. I would use twice the amount for any cubes that I pulled from the freezer. Always put the current date on any bags of cubes.
For those making dosage balls with black strap molasses, organic peanut butter or raw honey which do not have a water content you can keep excess balls in the refrigerator for approximately a week. I would store them on a lower shelf since cold settles usually making that the coldest area of your fridge. Any that you'd like to keep longer than that double freezer bag and keep in your freezer. You may want to freeze them on a parchment paper covered cookie sheet before you bag them so they don't freeze together.
Herbs can also be stored indefinately in alcohol and for multiple years in raw organic apple cider vinegar and then straining the liquid before using. They can also be kept in olive oil this way for approximately two years. Remember to keep these out of light, to use sterilized containers and to label them with a date.
We had a recent question about Lung worm and irritated lungs in a goat, as well as wanting to be ready for an upcoming kidding. I'm sharing my notes.
Besides helping her body be a place that lungworm doesn't want to reside (DWA (tm)) she may need some additional lung support. If she has damage there- remember that is tender tissue that can be irritated with every breath containing particulate in it (ever see dusty barn air in a sunbeam?) I would look at BreatheDeeplee(tm) herb mix to give that support. It will take some time as the lungs aren't allowed to rest while they heal themselves.
I will also list other suggestions based on info in your email. Do or don't do as you feel led.
If you want for her you could also consider MMune (tm) as she probably is more susceptible to other potential issues at this time.
IF you think she may have a bacterial or viral issue starting (WATCH HER FOR ANY SIGN OF FEVER!) or if you just want to rule that out before there would be problems please look at HerBiotic (tm) herb mix.
For your pregnant doe if you want look at BetterDaze(tm) herb mix.
Kop-Sel if you are in a selenium/copper deficient area for support if you want herbal support.
PrePare(tm) for prekidding reproductive organ support.
Ewe-Ter-N(tm) herb mix given on kidding day, just before (or sometimes during) kidding, and after if afterbirth doesn't drop in 20 minutes.
GI Soother(tm) is extremely popular for raising kids that are in coccidia or barberpole areas.
Blessings every single one of you in your farm and family this year!!! And yes, I count farm critters as family :).
For almost two decades we have gotten much of our health food store types of items at WHOLESALE pricing through Azure Standard. YOU can too! They offer drop off locations in much of the United States and of course offer UPS. Since they are an Oregon based business they also don't charge sales tax :D. In our area we are able to pick up products every two weeks, in some areas it's once per month. We also don't have to pay shipping as long as our orders are at least $50 which is EZ to do.
Check them out and sign up through this link. They will give me a credit and you will be able to start shopping at a great discount. They even offer sales! This is a great place to get that 50# bag of cold water kelp, bulk raw organic apple cider vinegar or a gallon of black strap molasses!
Blessings All of you :) Katherine
Thank you! We're new to dairy goats, have been reading your book (love it! Watching for more books too) and are on our way to raising our small herd naturally. Thank you very much for all the educational material you have out and continue to offer. CL in Pennsylvania
What are you waiting for??? Get yours today! Signed by the Author :D
Do you wish you didn't have to rely on synthetic nutrient excito toxin storebought products? Look no further! I love making this for my does, alpacas and mares after they birth. It's easy to stir into warm water which most animals will readily slurp up. Serve it immediately after birthing. It can also be offered during prolonged birthing (in that case I also offer up Ewe-Ter-N(tm) which supplies what the body needs to enable it to have well timed efficient contractions and usually a faster expulsion of the afterbirth).
Combine Black Strap molasses, olive oil, cayenne and BetterDaze(tm) herb mix with enough hot water to make it easy to drench (or add it to their grain, mash or water).
The molasses needs to be Black Strap unsulphured. The cheaper grades are primarily sugar and very little mineral, which will weaken your animal's muscular strength and remove some minerals from their body). It provides valuable iron in a safe form as well as many other minerals and B vitamins to help support a tired or stressed body. This is often a health food store item. 50 - 100 lb animals get 1/2 tablespoon, 100 to 200 lb animals get 1 tbsp, 200-400 lb animals get 2 tbsp (1/8 cup). 400 to 800 lb animals get 3 tbsp. 800- 1300 lb animals get 1/2 cup.
The olive oil provides easy to utilize calories as well as being soothing to the digestive system. Give the same dose as the molasses.
Cayenne ideally should be 35,000 heat unit if organic to 40,000 heat unit potency. I use a small pinch with animals under 100 lbs, a large pinch for 100 - 200 lb animals, 1/8 tsp for 200-400 lbs, 1/4 tsp for 400 - 800 lbs and 1/2 tsp for 800 - 1300 lb creatures. It it another great source of B vitamins during stress as well as a high quality Vitamin C source. It helps support animals that are shocky, will help the body stop bleeding or hemorrhaging (I give it orally mixed with water and give it vaginally mixed with water or olive oil) and helps supply endurance.
BetterDaze(tm) herb mix supplies a wide range of easy to utilize vitamins, minerals and nutrients which are perfect for supporting the dam and her tired body. Follow dosages on the label. It can be purchased here https://www.firmeadowllc.com/store/p418/Herb_Mix_BetterDaze%E2%84%A2_Nutritional_Supplement_OG-WC_8_oz.html if you don't already have it on hand. It's also a great product to support your babies towards reaching their genetic potential.
May all of you have the most beautiful and successful babies this year!
Here's some afternoon stats from a 51 year old gal! Nope. Not on meds either.... The verdict? 20 year old insides :D. That is far improved over my health in my twenties!
Blood pressure 104/60 , 92/62, 100/58.
Pulse is 44 (marathon runner pulse- which I am not- BUT I practice 30 minutes of yoga stretching & breath 3 to 6 days per week).
Oxygen ranges from 98 to 99.
Cholesterol ratios- HDL 2.7 (stay under 5)
LDL/HDL - 1.57 ( normal range .6 to 4.3)
Triglycerides- 51 (0-150)
negatives for diuretic and beta blocker drugs
Kidneys: Bun 8 (9-26)
Creatinine .7 (.6-1.1)
Urine pH 5.7 (4.0 - 8.7) I eat more meat in the winter months than in the summer where I'm nearly vegan.
Protein (checks for spillage in urine indicating kidney disease) 2 (0-30),
Leukocytes and hemoglobins screens negative
creatinine 60 (27 - 260)
protein/creatinine ratio .03 (.0 - .20)
Liver: Alkaline phosphatase 62 (30 -115)
total bilirubin .5 (.2-1.2)
AST 14 (12 - 35)
ALT 14 (9-42)
GGT 10 (10-65)
Total protein 7.1 (6.1-8.2)
Albumin 4.3 (3.8-5.2)
Globulin 2.8 (2.1-3.5)
negative for hiv, cotinine (nicotine derivative)
blood glucose 75 (60-109)
urine glucose negative
A1c 5.8 (3.0 - 6.0) measures blood sugar over past several weeks. I will blame that on chocolate!
BTW my husbands last test at age 61 was
Yes, 20 years old inside :) and also healthier than he was in his twenties.
Consultations available for those that would like to help their bodies improve wellness levels naturally! When we are talking about health you want to work with someone that can prove that what they do WORKS. Much more than theory!
www.firmeadowllc.com BLESSINGS ALL OF YOU!!!
Here are some natural, whole herb, thoughtfully build and popular products to help you support your dogs or other animals in dealing with this and other parasite issues.
For my creatures I would want to give DWormA(tm) to them every two hours the first day (waking hours) double dosed from regular label dose. Then 4x a day for 2 days and then 3 x a day for 3 days. If possible fast your animal on the first day. Do not fast them if they are pregnant or very weak. It can also be used with any nonsymptomatic animals. Since the three month the life cycle is so long on whips, they can have them for a long time before they shed any eggs to catch in a fecal. They also tend to be tricky to catch by fecal since they reside way down in the Cecum (between the small intestine and the ascending colon). The herbs will not harm any dog or animal that doesn't need it, but rather will nourish them. Then consider anywhere from giving it once a day for two times a week, to 6 out of 7 days each week if you want to feed it that often you can. Their eggs can stay in the environment for years including through heavy freezes so once you find your animals have had these it's very important to stay on a regular program. Clean what you can in their environment. This product also helps the body deal with any possible hemorrhaging that could be caused by that parasitic load.
Other considerations include their interior intestinal environment that allows parasites to flourish. I would use BetterBowels(tm) on non livestock animals if I ran into that problem. Livestock don't usually need this due to the large amounts of roughage that they eat. Start the bowel product the second week after beginning the DWorm A. Try not to give them at the same time. Dogs that are on processed food (kibble) or cooked food and /or those that strain to defecate are more susceptible to parasites than those that are raised raw food (assuming there is a large quantity of raw fruit and vegetables in that raw diet). Lightly steamed is fine.
BetterDaze(tm) herb mix will give their bodies what they need to supernourish the blood and cells that the parasites have stripped. It will also provide what their body needs to rebuild iron in the bloodstream, safely helping the body to recover itself from an anemia issues and do so naturally.
MMune(tm) herb mix can be used to support any animals dealing with immunity issues which also makes them more susceptible to parasites. Animals near birthing (about ten percent of their gestation before they birth and ten percent afterwards will naturally have reduced immune system function that parasites like to take advantage of and of course having parasites compromises immunity of the host.
All of these products can be found under products and then herb mixes at www.firmeadowllc.com where we offer hope to those facing challenges with their human and animal families!
Wild birds are so fun to watch. We have several species that visit our feeders and we love to identify and watch them. But what about those in our barn or with our chickens? Now that's another story! Birds of course can leave waste in feeders and spread diseases to poultry as they hop around going after stray feed. Birds can as hop on coccidia and then hop in your animal feeders and place their coccidia, e coli , etcetera onto their eating areas. So it's better if they do not mix with your animal feeding areas.
There are a few things one can do to minimize or avoid these things. First is if you like to feed birds as we do, is to keep their feeding stations far from poultry and livestock feeding areas. Another thing is to only feed your poultry and stock what they can consume at that feeding and to feed it in containers that avoid waste. Feeders that can be picked up and moved after feeding should be removed and put in a feed room or other place not accessible to them. Also, most birds will enter your barns or sheds from higher. Closing off gaps between eves and other openings with one inch poultry wire or woven hardware cloth so that fresh air movement is still allowed over head but birds aren't allowed to land and hop in will reduce the amount of birds entering your barn areas. Even old screening can often be obtained for free and be upcycled this way. Keeping barn doors closed when possible also helps. Also keeping a barn cat (keep it healthy & chlamydia free!) in the barn can also reduce wild bird populations. I personally don't do this because of problems with cats using hay for their bathroom. For poultry's safety from wild birds (as well as weasels!) it is best to use a one inch poultry netting for their pens, housing, chicken tractor and supplemental feeding areas. Two inch netting, while cheaper, allows birds and small predators in. It also deteriorates faster allowing foxes and raccoons a greater likelihood of getting to your birds.
Another way to combat this is to be sure your animals and poultry are the healthiest they can possibly be! We achieve this by supplementing poultry with LayNLayer herb mix or BetterDaze herb mix as well as decrease their parasite challenges with DWormA and GI Soother for coccidial challenges and MMune herb mix for any that need that additional support for their immune systems such as weak, old, recovering or senior creatures. For livestock we offer the same products (of course they don't need the LayNLayer!).
BLESSINGS TO ALL OF YOU- YOU, YOUR HUMAN FAMILY AND YOUR CREATURE FAMILY :D
"But I don't have coyotes" your mind is telling you. The truth is you probably do. They cruise through rural, suburban and even sometimes city areas of 49 of our states and all of Canada. February & March they tend to be the most aggressive as they enter breeding season along with reduced rodent availability. Male coyotes can become extremely aggressive due to increased testosterone levels and increases in fighting with other males. After that hunting increases to feed their quickly growing pups. Fall of course encourages them to hunt extra to try to put on extra weight for winter and winter of course faces it's own challenges. We have seen coyotes all hours of the daytime and of course hear them out at night (we have at least three distinct packs in our neighborhood). They've been sighted off in the distance, in neighbor's yards and even just a step outside of our livestock containing fencing! Fencing without a guardian in it of course can be dug under, squeezed through or under or sometimes jumped over from a log or pile of manure or other item that a careless stock owner leaves too close to the fence. Coyotes only require a few inches to squeeze under or through something. Check your fencing regularly to avoid this.
As livestock and pet owners there are many concerns with coyotes. One is the spread of parvo through their feces. Another is the well known fact that they delight in hunting dogs and cats as a part of their menu, even snatching them off of porches. Even your guardian dogs aren't 100% safe from them. This is why. Several years ago we watched the audacity of one coyote in the afternoon run back and forth along the fenceline with our guardian dogs going bananas just on the other side. What was that trouble maker up to? He knew he couldn't get in and with dogs right there he wouldn't try. What he was doing and what they try to do is to get a dog or two to come after them. Suicidal? No. Hunting? Yes! If they can coerce your guardian or other dog to dig out, squeeze out or go over for a chase they will lead your dog right into an ambush by the pack. End of dog. One guardian or two guardians have no way to take on a pack of coyotes in a planned ambush.
Coyotes are ruthless in their hunting. When going after livestock (or deer, elk, etc) their main strategy is do distract and attack from the front to keep their prey's attention while one or more go for the hamstring or scrotum at the rear. As soon as they bring their animal down they don't finish the kill. They just start eating. Sick and evil, but true. They also are very well known for pulling baby livestock away during birthing- even before the baby is completely out of the birth canal! Always keep your mares, jennies, cattle and small livestock if possible in a coyote proof pen close in when birthing, and / or keep guardians with them. They generally target pets and small livestock (including your immature large livestock), but if they are real hungry they will also target large stock. I also had a horse about twenty years ago that sustained an injury to his face from hitting the fence while running coyotes off.
Ways to avoid coyotes on your place is by keeping good strong fencing on borders where possible along with a guardian or guardians on the inside. Guardian dogs, llamas, occasionally an alpaca male, and donkeys are all commonly used for livestock guardians. There are pros and cons to each form so you'll need to decide which is right for you. Electric fencing can be used but it a maintenance issue if placed on the outside of the fence due to grass and brush growth. Solar powered electric web fencing is very expensive but works well for those that need to get a fence up quick in a new location. It's most commonly used for small livestock and poultry.
Coyotes are very difficult to shoot. My husband has been able to drop one in all of our years together. But certainly if you have safety training and it's legal for you to shoot where you are, this is another method to try to narrow down the ranks. If you are having to shoot onto a neighbor's property to get them be sure you have their permission. Don't count on being able to get very many this way though unless you live in an area where you can set up with a light, calls etc in areas where it's legal to hunt them that way.
Remember that while coyotes are wiley, your number one most likely predator damage is going to be from DOGS- from your neighborhood, your own, or strays wandering through. We get clients from all three scenarios. Please have a plan to keep them out of your stock.
May you never ever ever have a problem from these beautiful but rotten thieves. We are here to help you with herbal aftercare should you have an animal or animals that ever experience predator damage. See our great products at www.firmeadowllc.com . Look for Better Daze, Cayenne extract or herb powder, Wounderful! Salve and ReBuilld herb mix to radically support the healing process. Blessings ALL OF YOU!!!
I get this question frequently!!! I base my answers on the following list to sort through the hype, the big money and the fancy marketing to decide whether an herb merits medicinal use at commonly accepted doseages for herbs. Note that they must pass EVERY test.
1) Does it meet Hippocrates 'Do no harm"?
2) Does it work WITH the body to move it towards wellness (Vitalist)?
3) It must not be habit forming nor have that potential.
4) Is must not be poisonous.
5) It must not be toxic (cause side effects).
Here at Fir Meadow LLC we can guide you through the ins and outs of confusing questions and wellness protocols with alternative health for you and your creatures. Why? Because our Master of Herbology has the educational foundation to base our guidance on! You can select from a wide array of products and consultation services on our website. Blessings ALL :)
White Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) , Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and Red Valerian (Centranthus ruber) at Fir Meadow. Photo by Katherine Drovdahl.
We like to say that livestock and humans should eat plants and plants should eat rocks and dirt. Why is this SO CRITICALLY important???!!! When we keep things in that order bodies do well. You see when a plant converts sunlight through photosynthesis it combines nutrients it uptakes from soil (broken down rocks & organic matter) with a carbon atom. It is that carbon atom attached to that nutrient that makes it bioavailable. That nutrient becomes fully utilizable by the body. It's able to uptake it into cells, use it fully for it's intended purpose and it is fully able to eliminate any excess that it doesn't want to utilize. This allows the ability to fully nourish the body and to not store toxic or structurally damaging excesses of copper, selenium, copper, fat soluble vitamins, etc. Some of these excesses can and do build up to cause liver toxicity (which can lead to death), stones such as urinary calculi, kidney stones, enteroliths, gall stones (which form in the liver and are there as well), bone spurs, hardening of the pituitary gland or brain tissue, etc.
So how on earth do we and our beloved critters end up eating rocks? Here are a few considerations.
Our wells and city waters are not soft water- they contain rock mineral particulate. When we lived in southern Oregon I could actually SEE the particulate from our high calcium well whenever water was brewed for tea. It also accumulated at the mouths of faucets etc. There were no dandelions or alfalfa plants growing in our well to contribute to this. The soils in that area contain high amounts of calcium.
Store bought food and feeds that have minerals added or are 'fortified' have rock or synthetic sources added. Read your label- if it doesn't say the magnesium is because whole alfalfa, stinging nettle or another plant is in the product then it's not from a plant! It's from a rock or a formulated fake from a laboratory. Why do companies do this? Because it's much less expensive to mine and purchase rock nutrients than it is to use whole plants that contain the nutrients. I can purchase a whole ten yard dump truck load of several tons of rocks or sand for the same price that some of the herbs that I work with cost me by the pound! Most calcium put into food and feeds in the US is mined limestone from the midwest. Chemical or synthetic derived nutrients are cheap too and are derived from oil. Kodak is or used to be one of the largest suppliers of nutrients for the food industry. Scary or interesting. I'm not sure which it is!
We provide wonderful high quality WHOLE HERB nutrition for you, your human and pet family, just as God intended!
Get those now at www.firmeadowllc.com (www.firmeadowllc.com)
Be ABUNDANTLY BLESSED :)
Whole herb products for your ENTIRE family!
WOW- Listings are limited- get yours in for your state or region first! Want to list your animals for sale??? For just $25 per year per animal type and per breed you can list with us for increased exposure!! Listing costs and listings will be Calendar year- From January 1 through December 31st.
This is exclusive! To list with us:
1)You must purchase herb products for us the year of listing.
2)You must provide a copy and paste ready with each order. Include 1 to 2 photos.
3) You must order your ad through this site.
Listings limited to one per state per animal and per breed and three per Canadian province as long as listings are at least 250 miles apart (determined by Google). Except for the following states: California which shall be split into three sections- northern, central and southern. Texas which shall be split into east west north and south Texas, Alaska shall be split into the islands, the coast and the interior, and Montana which shall be split into the mountainous west region and the east plains. We are retaining Washington state for alpacas (both breeds) and LaMancha dairy goats. We retain the right to add other animal types or breeds during the year should we acquire other breeding projects (not likely but you never know). We retain the right to refuse anyone's advertisement for any reason at any time and reserve editing rights.
We will post your add in our blog which will stay in our blog for the calendar year, as well as hit our facebook page. We will also set up a page on our website to post links to your sites as they come in.
We will accept RENEWALS for the upcoming year in December of each year. Any ads not renewed in December will allow your state and animal add type to be available to resell to another.
You want to list Nubians and Maremmas. If your state has not been taken for those your annual cost will be $25 each animal or $50 total. Order two ads. You will submit separate ad for each one.
You want to list Gypsy Vanner horses and Arabian horses. If your state is available for those your cost would be $25 per breed or $50 total. You will submit a separate ad for each one.
Click on this link to take you right there!
Happy Sales to Happy Homes !!!
LaManchas!!! Adga registered, cae/cl/johnes negative! We are still taking deposits for our 2018 kid crop. Our goats typically mature in the LA 90 to 92 range, tend to be very high in rolling average butterfat (most 4 to 4.9%), tend to be strong in the milk bucket (we've had lots of 3000K milkers and even a 4000K milker, higest this past year was 2800), breed for wonderful temperments! Alternative raised! When we showed we were blessed with many many best in show wins WA, OR and CA. www.firmeadowranch.com need to update site.... We also will be selling milkers and have bucks for sale now to keep our herd size reasonable. Not that you milk or show color but we have lots of variety too. B BLESSED live near sequim